Verse of the Day

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Pastor's Sermon Notes: Philippians (series), Part 8: The Great Christological Confession: The Apostle Paul’s Carmen Christi (Philippians 2:5-11), Part Two

Sermon Series: Philippians, Part 8
The Great Christological Confession:
The Apostle Paul’s Carmen Christi, Part Two
Philippians 2:5-11

[Audio file on Internet Archive at]

5  Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: 6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: 7 But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: 8 And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. 9 Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: 10 That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; 11 And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.


In any list of “The Greatest Chapters of the Bible” Philippians 2 must be included. It ranks with Psalm 23, “The Shepherd Psalm;” Isaiah 53, “The Suffering Servant;” John 17, “The Great High Priestly Intercessory Prayer;” Romans 8, “The Hope Chapter;” 1 Corinthians 13, “The Love Chapter;” 1 Corinthians 15, “The Resurrection Chapter;” Hebrews 11, “The Faith Chapter;” and Revelation 21, “The Holy City Chapter.” Philippians 2 knows no equal as the “The Great Christological Confession: The Apostle Paul’s Carmen Christi.”


“…the most astonishing model of self-abnegating love for the sake of others, as a ground for moral improvement. Paul explicitly offers such an appeal in Philippians 2:5-11.”
— D. A. Carson, The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), pg. 327. Highlighting mine.

Previous sermon:
The Preface to the The Great Christological Confession: The Apostle Paul’s Carmen Christi (2:5)
Part 1: The Humiliation of Christ (2:6-8)
I. The Mind-Boggling Mentality of the Messiah (2:6)


Part 1: The Humiliation of Christ (2:6-8)
II. The Essence of the Action of Incarnation (2:7)

Part 1: The Humiliation of Christ in The Great Christological Confession: The Apostle Paul’s Carmen Christi (2:6-8)

II. The Essence of the Action of Incarnation (2:7)

But made himself of no reputation,[1] and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men:

If you are reading the Holman Christian Standard Bible, or the New Living Translation there is a difference in where verse 7 ends, and verse 8 begins from most other translations.

Here is descriptive piled onto descriptive developing for God’s people the beginning of the humiliation of the Son of God in the Incarnation, and opening the window to what this meant for the Son of God. The profound point to contemplate involves both what He left, and what He left it for.

made of no reputation
took (upon him)
the form of a servant
was made
in the likeness of men

1. But made himself of no reputation[2]

Translations demonstrate the difficulty involved in the decision of how to render the first verb:

NASB — but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. [Note: “I.e. laid aside His privileges”[3]]

ESV — but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.

HCSB — Instead He emptied Himself by assuming the form of a slave, taking on the likeness of men.

NIV — rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.

NLT — Instead, he gave up his divine privileges*; he took the humble position of a slave* and was born as a human being. [Note: “2:7a Greek he emptied himself.”[4]]

YLT — but did empty himself, the form of a servant having taken, in the likeness of men having been made,

Many of these translations raise questions, create problems, and seem to open the door to heresies such as that known as the “kenosis theory.”[5] In their most extreme forms both ancient and modern the meaning of this verb is imagined to teach here that the Son of God “emptied” Himself of His deity, and temporarily stopped being God in the sense of retaining all of the attributes of deity.

For example:
Exactly what did He “empty Himself” of?
Did he really make Himself “nothing”?

This clause must not be disconnected from that which precedes it in verse 6, and that which follows in the immediate context, in the rest of verse 7 at a minimum. Failure to observe these connections is a certain path to fatal Christological error. When these critical contextual points are correctly understood and considered in studying this clause the full deity and full humanity of the Incarnate One will be seen as revealed here. In these words we must see the Son of God becoming the Son of Man while remaining the Son of God, and thus becoming a Person unique in all of eternity and the history of the created universe: one Person with two complete natures, the true God-Man.

The positive meaning of this verb in the context is determined especially by the negative fact that immediately precedes it: He “thought it not robbery to be equal with God” (2:6b). If this is missed, the two participial phrases that follow unpack its meaning for us by explaining precisely how this was done: He “took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men” (2:7b-c). It has rightly been defined as “…to completely remove or eliminate elements of high status or rank by eliminating all privileges or prerogatives associated with such status or rank—‘to empty oneself, to divest oneself of position.’ [6] (For a table of the verbs and verbal forms in this paragraph see Appendix II: The Predicate Flow in Philippians 2:5-11.)

Perhaps an old novel can help us at this point to understand what is going on in this affirmation. If you are familiar with Mark Twain’s “first attempt at historical fiction,”  The Prince and the Pauper, published in 1881 in Canada, and in 1882 in the USA.

“Set in 1547, it tells the story of two young boys who are identical in appearance: Tom Canty, a pauper who lives with his abusive father in Offal Court off Pudding Lane in London, and Prince Edward, son of King Henry VIII.”

“Tom Canty, youngest son of a poor family living in Offal Court, London, has always aspired to a better life, encouraged by the local priest (who has taught him to read and write). Loitering around the palace gates one day, he sees a prince (the Prince of Wales – Edward VI). Coming too close in his intense excitement, Tom is nearly caught and beaten by the Royal Guards; however, Edward stops them and invites Tom into his palace chamber. There the two boys get to know one another, fascinated by each other's life and their uncanny resemblance; they were born on the same day. They decide to switch clothes "temporarily". The Prince momentarily goes outside, quickly hiding an article of national importance (which the reader later learns is the Great Seal of England), but dressed as he is in Tom's rags, he is not recognized by the guards, who drive him from the palace, and he eventually finds his way through the streets to the Canty home. There he is subjected to the brutality of Tom's abusive father, from whom he manages to escape, and meets one Miles Hendon, a soldier and nobleman returning from war. Although Miles does not believe Edward's claims to royalty, he humors him and becomes his protector. Meanwhile, news reaches them that King Henry VIII has died and Edward is now the king.”

“After a series of adventures (including a stint in prison), Edward interrupts the coronation as Tom is about to celebrate it as King Edward VI. Tom is eager to give up the throne; however, the nobles refuse to believe that the beggarly child Edward appears to be is the rightful king until he produces the Great Seal that he hid before leaving the palace. Tom declares that if anyone had bothered to describe the seal he could have produced it at once, since he had found it inside a decorative suit of armor (where Edward had hidden it) and had been using it to crack nuts.”

Source: Wikipedia at [accessed 22 JAN 2017].

Notice that what makes a difference in this story is their clothing, the Great Seal, and ultimately the crown, the “elements of high status or rank” (Louw and Nida, op. cit.).

The key moment in the Philippians passage is the decision of the preexistent Christ to make himself nothing (v. 7, NIV). It clearly was a decision, one that involved his adding to the form of God the form of a servant, and obscuring his divine glory behind the veil of humanness. It was voluntary and discretionary even to the extent that the apostle can commend it as an example to the Philippian believers: “Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus” (v. 5, NIV). Indeed, not only are they to imitate his attitude (and his action), but they are to imitate his motives: he disregarded his own interests and focused on those of others.”[7]
— Donald Macleod, “Definite Atonement and the Divine Decree,” in From Heaven He Came and Sought Her: Definite Atonement in Historical, Biblical, Theological, and Pastoral Perspective, eds. David Gibson, and Jonathan Gibson (Wheaton: Crossway, 2013), pg. 421. Highlighting mine.

Ps. 22:6 — But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people.

Is. 53:1-4 — 1 Who hath believed our report?  and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed?
2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. 3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. 4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.

Mk. 9:12 — And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at nought.

2 Cor. 8:9 — For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich.

In published works that discuss the meaning of this clause there are many attempts to deny the connections to the Servant Songs of Isaiah.

2. and took upon him the form of a servant

Is. 42:1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.

Mt. 20:28 — Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.

This and the following participial phrase must be seen as parallel, or coordinate.

3. and was made in the likeness of men

Jn. 1:14 — And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

Rom. 8:3 — For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

Gal. 4:4 — But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

Heb. 2:17 — Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

“Behold me then:  me for him, life for life
I offer: on me let thine anger fall;
Account me Man; I for his sake will leave
Thy bosom, and this glory next to thee
Freely put off, and for him lastly die “    
— John Milton, Paradise Lost (1674), Book III, lines 236-240; on the Knarf project, Department of English, University of  Pennsylvania at [accessed 21 JAN 2017].

[Sermon preached 22 JAN 2017 by Pastor John T. “Jack” Jeffery at Wayside Gospel Chapel, Greentown, PA.]

Complete Outline:

Part 1: The Humiliation of Christ The Great Christological Confession: The Apostle Paul’s Carmen Christi (2:6-8)

II. The Essence of the Action of Incarnation (2:7)

1. But made himself of no reputation

2. and took upon him the form of a servant

3. and was made in the likeness of men

Appendix I: Miscellaneous Resources on Philippians 2:5-11

1. Sermons

John Chrysostom (349-407), “The Homilies Of St. John Chrysostom Archbishop Of Constantinople, On The Epistles Of St. Paul The Apostle To The Philippians, Colossians, And Thessalonians,” trans. John A. Broadus, in Saint Chrysostom: Homilies On Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, And Philemon, Vol. XIII in A Select Library Of The Nicene And Post-Nicene Fathers Of The Christian Church, ed. Philip Schaff (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark; Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, n.d.), pp. 206-218, s.v. “Homily VI. Philippians ii. 5–8,” and “Homily VII. Philippians ii. 5–11;” on Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) at and respectively [accessed 14 JAN 2017].

John Murray, “The Mystery of Godliness” (sermon on Phil. 2:5-9), in Collected Writings of John Murray, 4 vols., Vol. 3: Life of John Murray, Sermons & Reviews (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1982), pp. 236-241.

Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, “Imitating the Incarnation” (Phil. 2:5-8), sermon in The Gospel of the Incarnation (New York: Randolph, 1893), reprinted in The Saviour of the World (New York: Hodder and Stoughton, 1914; reprinted Cherry Hill, NJ: Mack, 1972), pp. 247-270; and in The Person and Work of Christ, ed. Samuel G. Craig (Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1950), pp. 563-575; downloadable PDF file on The Gospel Coalition at [accessed 15 JAN 2017].

2. Specialized Studies

Daniel J. Fabricatore, A Lexical, Exegetical, and Theological Examination of the Greek Noun [Morphē] in Philippians 2:6-7, Ph.D. dissertation (Clarks Summit, PA: Baptist Bible Seminary, 2008); published as Form of God, Form of a Servant: An Examination of the Greek Noun [Morphē] in Philippians 2:6-7 (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2010).

Robert F. Gundry, “Style and Substance in “The Myth of God Incarnate” According to Philippians 2:6-11,” in Crossing the Boundaries: Essays in Biblical Interpretation in Honour of Michael D. Goulder, eds. Stanley E. Porter, Paul M. Joyce, and David E. Orton Biblical Interpretation Series, eds. R. Alan Culpepper, and Rolf Rendtorff, v. 8 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994), pp. 271-293.

Ralph P. Martin, An Early Christian Confession: Philippians II. 5-11 in Recent Interpetation (London: Tyndale, 1960).

Ralph P. Martin, A Hymn of Christ: Philippians 2:5-11 in Recent Interpretation & in the Setting of Early Christian Worship, 2nd rev. ed. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1997; previous rev. ed. by Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1983; 1st ed. titled Carmen Christi: Philippians ii. 5-11 in Recent Interpretation and in the Setting of Early Christian Worship, Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series 4, by Cambridge University, London, 1967).

Ralph P. Martin, and Brian J. Dodd, eds., Where Christology Began: Essays on Philippians 2 (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1998).

Wayne A. Meeks, “The Man From Heaven in Paul’s Letter to the Philippians,” in The Future of Early Christianity: Essays in Honor of Helmut Koester, eds. Birger A. Pearson, A. Thomas. Kraabel, George W. E. Nickelsburg, and Norman R. Petersen (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991), pp. 329-336.

C. F. D. Moule, “Further Reflexions on Philippians 2:5-11,” in Apostolic History and the Gospel: Biblical and Historical Essays Presented to F.F. Bruce on his 60th birthday, eds. W. Ward Gasque, and Ralph P. Martin (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970), pp. 264-276.

3. Sources for the Greek Text of the New Testament and Textual Criticism:

P. W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary: Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House, 2008).

The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text, 2nd ed., eds. Zane C. Hodges, Arthur L. Farstad, et al. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1985).

Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament: A Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament (third edition) (Stuttgart, Germany: United Bible Societies, 1971).

Bruce M. Metzger, and United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament (4th rev. ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994).

Novum Testamentum Graece, eds. Eberhard and Erwin Nestle, 27th ed., eds. Barbara and Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1898, 1993).

Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont, The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform 2005 (Southborough, MA: Chilton Book Publishing, 2006).

4. Greek Grammar and Vocabulary Resources

F. Blass, and A. Debrunner, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 9th ed., trans. and rev. Robert W. Funk (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1961).

Ernest De Witt Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1978 reprint of 1900 edition, University of Chicago Press, Chicago).

H. E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Toronto: The Macmillan Co., 1927, 1955).

G. Adolf Deissmann, Bible Studies: Contributions Chiefly from Papyri and Inscriptions to the History of the Language, the Literature, and the Religion of Hellenistic Judaism and Primitive Christianity, trans. Alexander Grieve (Winona Lake, IN: Alpha Publications, n.d.; 1979 ed., reprint of Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1923, combining both Bibelstudien and Neue Bibelstudien).

Adolf Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East: The New Testament Illustrated by Recently Discovered Texts of the Graeco-Roman World, 4th rev. ed. of Licht vom Osten (Tübingen, 1909, 1923), trans. Lionel R. M. Strachan (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, n.d.; 1978 ed.).

Murray J. Harris, Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2012).

Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, eds., Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (New York: United Bible Societies, 1988, 1989).

C. F. D. Moule, An Idiom-Book of New Testament Greek, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953, 1959).

James Hope Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek, 4 vols. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1978).

James Hope Moulton, Prolegomena, 3rd ed., Vol. I in James Hope Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark).

James Hope Moulton and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament Illustrated from the Papyrii and other Non-Literary Sources (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., n.d.; 1930 ed.).

The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, 3 vols., gen. ed. Colin Brown, English ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978; trans. from Germ. original, Theologisches Begriffslexikon Zum Neuen Testament, 1971 by Theologischer Verlag Rolf Brockhaus, Wuppertal).

A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research, 4th ed. (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1934).

G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley, and G. Friedrich, eds., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, electronic ed., trans. G. W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-1976).

Nigel Turner, Style, Vol. IV in James Hope Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1976).
Nigel Turner, Syntax, Vol. III in James Hope Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1963).

G. B. Winer A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek: Regarded as a Sure Basis for New Testament Exegesis, 3rd ed., trans. W. F. Moulton, 9th ed. (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1882).

5. Select Commentaries

Alfred Barry, “The Epistles to the Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians,” in Ellicott’s Commentary on the Whole Bible: A Verse by Verse Explanation, ed. Charles John Ellicott, 8 vols. in 4 ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, n.d.; 1981 reprint of 1959 Zondervan ed.), VIII:61-90.

D. A. Carson, Basics For Believers: An Exposition of Philippians (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996).

Fred B. Craddock, Philippians, in Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching, eds. James Luther Mays, and Paul J. Achtemeier (Louisville: John Knox, 1985).

J. Eadie, A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, 2nd ed., ed. W. Young (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1884).

Robert Gromacki, Stand United in Joy: An Exposition of Philippians, The Gromacki Expository Series (The Woodlands, TX: Kress Christian, 2002).

G. Walter Hansen, The Letter to the Philippians, The Pillar New Testament Commentary, gen. ed. D. A. Carson (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2009).

William Hendriksen, “Exposition of Philippians,” in Philippians, Colossians and Philemon, New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1962), pp. i-vi, and 1-218.

Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible (Iowa Falls, IA: World Bible Publishers, n.d.), VI:722-747

Robert Johnstone, Lectures Exegetical and Practical on the Epistle of Paul to the Philippians with a Revised Translation of the Epistle, and Notes on the Greek Text (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, n.d.; 1955 reprint ed. from 1875 printing by William Oliphant and Co., Edinburgh).

Clarence M. Keen, Christian Joy, or Outlines and an Exposition of Paul’s Letter to the Philippians (n.p.; n.d.).

Joseph Barber Lightfoot, St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, , n.d.; 1953 reprint ed. from 1913 original by Macmillan, London).

R. P. Lightner, “Philippians,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, 2 vols., eds. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1985).

Ralph P. Martin, The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians: An Introduction and Commentary, Vol. 11 in The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, gen. ed. R. V. G. Tasker (Grand Rapids:  Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1959).

J. Vernon McGee, Probing Through Philippians (Pasadena, CA: Thru the Bible Books, n.d.).

Matthew Poole, A Commentary on the Holy Bible, 3 vols. (Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust, n.d.; 1975 reprint of 1963 ed. from 1685 1st ed.), III:680-704.

A. T. Robertson, Paul’s Joy in Christ: Studies in Philippians, A. T. Robertson Library (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1917; 1979 reprint).

Archibald Thomas Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville: Broadman, 1932).

Moisés Silva, Philippians, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, ed. Moisés Silva (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992).

John Trapp, A Commentary Upon All the Books of the New Testament, 2nd ed., ed. W. Webster (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, n.d.; 1981 reprint from 1865 ed. by Richard D. Dickinson), pp. 602-613.

M. R. Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1887).

A. Blake White, Joyful Unity in the Gospel: The Call of Philippians (Colorado Springs, CO: Cross to Crown Ministries, 2015).

Appendix II: The Predicate Flow in Philippians 2:5-11
Pres pass impv
[vs. 2ndP?]
Let this
mind be

Pres act part
Aor mid indic
thought it

τὸ εἶναι
Pres act inf
to be
Aor act indic
of no reputation

Aor act part

Aor mid part

Aor pass part
Aor act indic

Aor mid part
Aor act indic
hath highly

Aor mid indic

Aor act subj

Aor mid subj

End Notes:

[1] See especially the development of the connection to the unique change in the Aaronic garments for the Day of Atonement by Mark Dever, “The Day of Atonement: Leviticus 16,” in Mark Dever and Michael Lawrence, It is Well: Expositions on Substitutionary Atonement (Wheaton: Crossway, 2010), pp. 38-39.

[2] “87.70 κενόωb: to completely remove or eliminate elements of high status or rank by eliminating all privileges or prerogatives associated with such status or rank—‘to empty oneself, to divest oneself of position.’ ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσεν ‘he emptied himself’ Php 2:7.”
Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, eds., Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (New York: United Bible Societies, 1988, 1989), 1:739.

[3] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

[4] Tyndale House Publishers. (2013). Holy Bible: New Living Translation. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers.

[5] John H. Gerstner, “Kenosis,” Baker’s Dictionary of Theology, eds. Everett F. Harrison, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and Carl F. H. Henry (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1960), pp. 308-309.

[6] Louw and Nida, op. cit.

[7] Macleod goes on in the next paragraph to describe this decision as both eternal and contingent: “It is true that this decision was taken by Christ from all eternity….Yet, though eternal, that decision was contingent. It was not, like his eternal sonship, the necessary form of his being, but a chosen form, born of a decision freely taken, and in itself the first of a sequence  of decisions which would take him eventually to Bethlehem, Gethsemane, and Calvary; just as, by another free decision, he chose not to take the nature of angels.” Op. cit., pp. 421-422.

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